Production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates: a review. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol ; 11 1 : Fish skin or, cartilage provides excellent raw materials for the production of gelatin, which is used in food and pharmaceutical industries [ 25 Karim AA, Bhat R. Fish hydrolyzates with high biological properties can be used in several fields ranging from medicine to aquaculture [ 51 Liaset B, Lied E, Espe M.
Microbial proteases-isolation, purification and characterization
J Sci Food Agric ; 80 5 : CO;2-I ] ]. Fish wastes are available throughout the year and are rich sources of carbon and nitrogen, which can be effectively utilized for the synthesis of value added products through fermentation using microorganisms. Enzymatic extraction of amino acids from fish waste for possible use as a substrate for production of jadomycin.
These elements are very useful for the growth of microbes as they act as cofactors for various metabolic activities. Production of protease by Bacillus subtilis grown on sardinelle heads and viscera flour.
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Bioresour Technol ; 80 1 : These expensive substrates are the reason for the high production cost of the enzyme and therefore, finding a suitable low cost medium and optimization strategies would economically benefit the production process on a large scale. So far, fish wastes such as whole body, heads, viscera, chitinous materials from fish with shells, and also fish wastewater which are rich in specific growth factors and amino acids were used as substrates for enzyme production.
However, each of the above said substrates was processed by different ways into a suitable form that could make up for the medium [ 17 Rebah FB, Miled N. Most of the time, the fish wastes including head and viscera were first cooked, pressed to remove excess water, minced thoroughly and dried at different conditions and finally made into a powder, in case it is needed in solid form [ 5 Triki-Ellouz Y, Ghorbel B, Souissi N, Kammoun S, Nasri M. Biosynthesis of protease by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MN7 grown on fish substrate. World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 19 1 : Acid-hydrolysis of fish wastes for lactic acid fermentation.
Bioresour Technol ; 97 18 : In addition, it was also reported that fish wastes subjected to defatting can enhance protease production due to the lipid free nature of the substrate [ 54 Esakkiraj P, Immanuel G, Sowmya SM, Iyapparaj P, Palavesam A. Evaluation of protease-producing ability of fish gut isolate Bacillus cereus for aqua feed. Food Bioprocess Tech ; 2 4 : Raw fish wastes have also been subjected to chemical treatments using acids, alkali and enzymes in order to obtain protein hydrolysates. After treatment, the processed wastes either in powder form or as supernatant were added to the basal medium for the production of enzyme.
Some studies using fish waste as a substrate for protease production have been listed in Table 1.
Different processing methods were used on the viscera of rainbow trout, swordfish, squid and yellow fin tuna to produce peptones [ 56 Wang SL, Yeh PY. Production of a surfactant-and solvent-stable alkaliphilic protease by bioconversion of shrimp shell wastes fermented by Bacillus subtilis TKU Process Biochem ; 41 7 : When this peptone is added in the medium to cultivate Vibrio species, it yielded high quantities of protease than media containing commercial peptones. Purification and characterization of a protease extracellularly produced by Monascus purpureus CCRC in a shrimp and crab shell powder medium.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 38 1 : Similarly, an increased level of protease activity by B. Evaluation of protease activity by B. Acid hydrolysates were prepared by extraction using water, followed by hydrolysis in a dilute acid, while alkali hydrolysates were prepared by recovering proteins through chemical extraction and isoelectric precipitation using HCl and sodium hexametaphosphate [ 58 Batista I.
Recovery of proteins from fish waste products by alkaline extraction. Eur Food Res Technol ; 2 : Shells rich in chitinous materials are also considered as waste when coming to fish processing and these are dried, ground and sieved to form a fine powder with very small diameter, to be used as substrate in the basal medium for microbial growth and enzyme production. Proteases production by two Vibrio species on residuals marine media. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 33 8 : Several studies have been conducted on the use of these chitinous materials in protease production and the choice of the type of chitinous substrate to be added depended on the strain of the bacteria and the nutrient sources already available.
One study reported that chitinous materials could be modified to enhance protease activity by treating with chemicals like acids or alkali [ 7 Souissi N, Ellouz-Triki Y, Bougatef A, Blibech M, Nasri M. Preparation and use of media for protease-producing bacterial strains based on by-products from Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and wastewaters from marine-products processing factories. Microbiol Res ; 4 : One of the major limitations is to maintain the consistency of the composition of fish waste.
In the case of same species, it can vary widely with respect to the region and the season of the catch. If different species are involved, much larger variations could be expected.
Segregation of wastes from different species in large quantities is a tedious undertaking. Despite the known benefits of using fish waste as potential protease producing substrate, there are some constraints, especially with regard to the total cost efficiency of a scaled up process. It is true that cheap and simple substrates can reduce the cost of the material, energy consumption and labour, but at the same time sustaining high yield is an important factor that needs consideration.
Therefore, there is a high demand for finding inexpensive substrates to produce stable enzymes under cost effective conditions. However, it would be more economical, if these low cost substrates needed very few treatments and also if they could be used as a complete growth medium without any supplements. One such cheap substrate could be fish wastes that are generated in large quantities all throughout the year and all over the world.
This brief review based on published literature summarises the importance of using fish waste as a potential medium for protease production. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public.
They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals.
The articles are high standard and cover a wide area. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis.
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The articles are of high quality and broad scope. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields.
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The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Open URL Guidelines. Announcing New Journal Website. Abstract Industrial biotechnology processes have recently been exploited for an economic utilization of wastes to produce value added products.
Article Information. View Abstract. Download PDF. Download ePub. Table 1 Protease activity of microbial strains grown in media containing various fish waste substrates prepared by different processes. Endorsements "Open access will revolutionize 21 st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines.
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Browse Contents Volume 13 - The enzyme was active over the pH range studied. Enzymes possess many ionizable groups so pH changes can alter the conformation of the enzyme 19 and the catalytic sites.
The optimum pH for alkaline proteases of Bacillus sp. Optimum substrate concentration for maximum PPP activity was determined in terms of the Michaelis—Menten kinetic constant K M and the maximum velocity v max using azocasein as a substrate. The v max represents the maximum rate of enzymatic reaction when the enzyme is saturated with substrate and the K M expresses the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate On the other hand, Ahmed et al. An enzyme with a low K M has a greater affinity for its substrate. Adinarayana et al.